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Exposure and treatment of toluene diisocyanate

Views: 288     Author: Vickey     Publish Time: 2023-07-04      Origin: Site

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Exposure and treatment of toluene diisocyanate

Two isomeric forms of toluene diisocyanate (2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate) are present, and both have features and effects that are identical. Commercial production of toluene diisocyanate involves mixing the two isomers in an 80:20 ratio (2,4-toluene diisocyanate: 2,6-toluene diisocyanate). The combination has a harsh, pungent smell and is a clear, pale yellow liquid at room temperature. It should be kept chilled, out of the way of light and moisture, in a container that is well sealed, and in an environment with an inert atmosphere. Toluene diisocyanate is miscible with the majority of common organic solvents but insoluble in water.

Sources/Uses

Toluene diamine and carbonyl chloride (phosgene) react to produce toluene diisocyanate. In order to create polyurethane foams, elastomers, and coatings, as well as paints, varnishes, wire enamels, sealants, adhesives, and binders, toluene diisocyanate is frequently employed as a chemical intermediary.It is also used as a cross-linking agent in the manufacture of nylon polymers.

Health Effects

Mucous membranes, in particular, are significantly irritated by toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate causes respiratory sensitization, euphoria, ataxia, mental abnormalities, vomiting, stomach discomfort, bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma when inhaled.

Toluene diisocyanate is a highly reactive chemical that has the potential to inactivate tissue biomolecules by covalent binding, but the exact mechanism by which it causes toxic effects is unknown. There was no data on whether toluene diisocyanate has different impacts on children's health than it does on adults. People who already have breathing issues may be especially vulnerable to toluene diisocyanate's effects since it causes severe respiratory problems.

Routes of Exposure

Inhalation

Toluene diisocyanate is mostly exposed through inhalation. Even in low quantities, the vapor irritates the respiratory system and lungs and is easily absorbed by the lungs. As a result, odor does not adequately alert people to potentially dangerous quantities. Because the vapor of toluene diisocyanate is heavier than air, it can asphyxiate people in small, poorly ventilated spaces or low-lying regions.

Due to their smaller lung capacities and higher lung surface area-to-body weight ratios, children who are exposed to the same quantities of toluene diisocyanate vapor as adults may get a higher dosage. Additionally, because of their small size and the greater concentrations of toluene diisocyanate vapor found closer to the ground, adolescents may be exposed to higher quantities than adults in the same environment.

Skin/Eye Contact

Toluene diisocyanate can cause serious eye and skin irritation when directly contacted. Mucous membranes get inflamed when exposed to vapor concentrations that are quite high. Dermal absorption through healthy skin moves slowly. Children have a substantially larger surface area to body weight ratio than adults, making them more susceptible to toxicants absorbed via the skin.

Advanced Treatment

Inhalation Exposure

Patients with respiratory problems should be given more oxygen through a mask. Use aerosolized bronchodilators to treat patients with bronchospasm. When there have been many chemical exposures, using bronchial sensitizing agents may increase the danger. Which sort of bronchodilator should be used depends on the condition of the myocardium.

Heart-sensitizing medications may be necessary; however, using them after being exposed to certain toxins may increase the risk of heart arrhythmias (particularly in the elderly). It is not known if toluene diisocyanate intoxication increases the incidence of bronchial or cardiac sensitization. Patients with hypersensitive pneumonitis or chronic wheeze should get corticosteroids as needed.

Skin Exposure

Chemical burns may occur if liquid toluene diisocyanate comes into contact with the skin; they should be treated as thermal burns. Children are particularly susceptible to skin toxins because of their larger surface area to body weight ratio.

Eye Exposure

Irrigate for at least 15 minutes more. Check your vision. Check the eyes for corneal injuries and administer the proper treatment. If a patient has had corneal damage, they should see an ophthalmologist very soon.

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