Views: 295 Author: Vickey Publish Time: 2023-05-15 Origin: Site
Oxolane, also known as tetrahydrofuran (THF), is an organic molecule with the formula (CH2)4O. The substance is categorized as a cyclic ether, a kind of heterocyclic substance. It is an organic liquid that is colorless, water-miscible, and has a low viscosity. The principal application is as a precursor to polymers. THF is a multipurpose solvent since it is polar and has a large liquid range.
The annual production of tetrahydrofuran is about 200,000 metric tons. The 1,4-butanediol is dehydrated using an acid catalyst in the most common industrial procedure. The process is comparable to that used to make diethyl ether from ethanol. Acetylene and formaldehyde are condensed to produce butanediol, which is then hydrogenated. By first oxidizing n-butane to crude maleic anhydride and then catalyzing hydrogenation, DuPont created a method for creating THF.A third significant commercial approach involves hydrogenating allyl alcohol after hydroformylation to produce 1,4-butanediol.
Furan can also be catalytically hydrogenated to create THF. Although this approach is not frequently used, it enables the conversion of certain sugars to THF via acid-catalyzed digestion to furfural and decarbonylation to furan. THF can therefore be produced using renewable resources.
THF transforms into a linear polymer known as poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol (PTMEG), often referred to as polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO), in the presence of strong acids. Elastomeric polyurethane fibers like Spandex are mostly made with this polymer.
THF's other primary uses are as a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industrial solvent and in varnishes. Its dielectric constant is 7.6, making it an aprotic solvent.It can dissolve a variety of polar and nonpolar chemical substances and is a moderately polar solvent. At low temperatures, THF and water can combine to produce solid clathrate hydrate structures.
In order to help liquefy and delignify plant lignocellulosic biomass for the manufacture of renewable platform chemicals and sugars as possible biofuel precursors, THF has been investigated as a miscible co-solvent in aqueous solutions. Aqueous THF is a good solvent for biomass pretreatment because it accelerates the hydrolysis of glycans from biomass and dissolves most of the lignin.
The study of polymers frequently uses THF. For instance, it can be used to dissolve polymers before gel permeation chromatography is used to calculate their molecular mass.THF is the primary component of PVC adhesives since it dissolves PVC as well. It is frequently used in industry to degrease metal components and may be used to liquefy old PVC cement.
In mobile phases for reversed-phase liquid chromatography, THF is a component. Although it is less frequently used than methanol or acetonitrile, it has a stronger elution strength.When employing PLA polymers for 3D printing, THF is utilized as a solvent. It may be used to clean clogged 3D printer components as well as to eliminate extruder lines from finished prints and give them a shiny appearance. THF is a co-solvent that has recently been utilized in lithium-metal batteries to help maintain the metal anode.