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What Is N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone?

Views: 284     Author: Vickey     Publish Time: 2023-07-12      Origin: Site


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What Is N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone?

A 5-membered lactam makes up the chemical molecule N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Even though impure samples might seem yellow, it is a colorless liquid. With water and the majority of typical organic solvents, it is miscible. Additionally, it is a member of the same group as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide as dipolar aprotic solvents. It is employed as a solvent in the petrochemical, polymer, and battery sectors, where it can dissolve a variety of compounds, including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), and is nonvolatile.


By reacting butyrolactone with methylamine during a normal ester-to-amide conversion, NMP is commercially created. Alternative pathways include the hydrolysis of N-methylsuccinimide after partial hydrogenation and the reaction of acrylonitrile with methylamine. Every year, between 200,000 and 250,000 tons are manufactured.


The recovery of 1,3-butadiene and acetylene, among other hydrocarbons produced during the production of petrochemicals, is accomplished using NMP. It is utilized to remove hydrogen sulfide from hydrodesulfurization and sour gas operations. NMP is used to dissolve a variety of polymers due to its high solvent qualities. It is specifically employed as a paint remover or as a solvent for treating the surfaces of textiles, resins, and metal-coated plastics.

Additionally, it serves as a solvent in the manufacturing process of polyphenylene sulfide. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is used in the pharmaceutical industry to formulate medications for both oral and transdermal administration.The capacity of NMP to dissolve the polyvinylidene fluoride binder makes it a particularly useful solvent for the manufacturing of electrodes in the manufacture of lithium ion batteries. There is a lot of work being done to replace NMP in the manufacture of batteries with another solvent or solvents, including water, due to its toxicity and high boiling point.

Health hazards

The substance N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone induces the embryonic development of physical abnormalities. Additionally, it is a reproductive toxin—a substance poisonous to the reproductive system, causing harm to male or female reproductive function as well as abnormalities in offspring. Effects on development are included in reproductive toxicity.

Through the skin, ingestion, and inhalation, the chemical can enter the body.People who are exposed to it may have fast, erratic breathing, shortness of breath, a weakened pain response, and a small bloody nasal discharge. Headaches may arise through inhalation, while discomfort and redness may ensue from skin exposure. It causes a burning feeling in the chest and throat when consumed. Additionally, it may result in acute solvent syndrome.

Biological aspects

After being administered orally, topically, or by inhalation in rats, NMP is quickly absorbed, disseminated throughout the body, and mostly removed via hydroxylation into polar chemicals that are expelled in the urine. Within 24 hours, over 80% of the dosage is eliminated as NMP and NMP metabolites. In rodents, yellow urine is seen, which is likely dosage-dependent. 5-Hydroxy-N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is the main metabolite.

Studies on people have shown similar outcomes. There has been evidence of relatively quick dermal penetration via human skin. When NMP is hydroxylated, it quickly undergoes biotransformation into 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, an intermediate that is then oxidized to N-methylsuccinimide and then further hydroxylated to 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide. All of these metabolites lack color.

Following oral consumption or inhalation, about 100% and 65% of the supplied dosages of NMP metabolites were eliminated in the urine. In rabbits, the potential for skin and ocular irritation from NMP is minimal and considerable, respectively. In rabbits, repeated daily applications of 450 mg/kg body weight to the skin resulted in painful, severe hemorrhage and the development of eschar.These negative effects were noticed following dermal exposure to NMP utilized in cleaning operations, but not in workers who were exposed to pure NMP at work. No possibility of sensitization has been noticed.

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