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What is acetylsalicylic acid,or aspirin?

Views: 289     Author: Vickey     Publish Time: 2023-06-02      Origin: Site

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What is acetylsalicylic acid,or aspirin?

Introduction

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), generally known as aspirin, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID) used to treat inflammation, fever, and/or discomfort as well as acting as a blood thinner. Aspirin is used to treat a variety of inflammatory disorders, including Kawasaki illness, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.Long-term use of aspirin is also used to help those at high risk avoid further heart attacks, ischemic strokes, and blood clots. Effects often start within 30 minutes of pain or fever. While aspirin functions similarly to other NSAIDs, it also inhibits platelets' natural activity.

An uncomfortable stomach is a typical side effect. The exacerbation of asthma as well as stomach bleeding and ulcers are more serious adverse effects. People who are older, drink alcohol, use other NSAIDs, or are taking other blood thinners have a higher risk of bleeding.Taking aspirin during the final trimester of pregnancy is not advised. Due to the possibility of developing Reye syndrome, it is typically not advised for children who have infections. Ringing in the ears has been linked to high dosages.

For at least 2,400 years, a forerunner to aspirin found in the willow tree's (genus Salix) bark has been utilized for its medicinal properties. To create acetylsalicylic acid for the first time, scientist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt combined sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride in 1853. Other scientists developed more effective manufacturing techniques and determined the chemical structure throughout the course of the following 50 years.

In most countries, aspirin is sold as a proprietary or generic drug without a doctor's prescription.With an estimated 40,000 metric tons (44,000 tons) (50 to 120 billion tablets) taken annually, it is one of the most commonly used medicines in the world and is included on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. With more than 17 million prescriptions written in 2020, it was the 36th most frequently prescribed drug in the country.

Chemical properties

In solutions of ammonium acetate or the acetates, carbonates, citrates, or hydroxides of the alkali metals, aspirin decomposes very quickly. It is stable in dry air but progressively hydrolyzes into acetic and salicylic acids when it comes into contact with moisture. The hydrolysis happens quickly in alkali solutions, and the clear solutions that result may only include acetate and salicylate.

Similar to flour mills, aspirin tablet makers must regulate the quantity of powder that is allowed to get airborne inside the structure since the combination of powder and air might be explosive. 5 mg/m3 (time-weighted average) is the recommended exposure limit in the United States, according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

Synthesis

Aspirin production is categorized as an esterification process. When salicylic acid is combined with the acid derivative acetic anhydride, a chemical reaction occurs that converts the hydroxyl group of the acid into an ester group (R-OH R-OCOCH3). Acetic acid, which is regarded as a byproduct of this reaction, and aspirin are the products of this process. Almost always, phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid in small volumes is utilized as a catalyst.This method is commonly demonstrated in undergraduate teaching labs.

Reaction between acetic acid and salicylic acid can also form aspirin but this esterification reaction is reversible and the presence of water can lead to hydrolysis of the aspirin. So, an anhydrous reagent is preferred.

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