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Preparation and application of 1,4-Butanediol

Views: 301     Author: Vickey     Publish Time: 2023-05-15      Origin: Site


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Preparation and application of 1,4-Butanediol

A primary alcohol with the chemical formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH is butane-1,4-diol. It is a clear, thick liquid. It is one of butanediol's four stable isomers.


Acetylene interacts with two equivalents of formaldehyde in industrial chemical synthesis to produce butyne-1,4-diol.Butane-1,4-diol is produced by hydrogenating butyne-1,4-diol. In the Davy method, it is also produced on an industrial scale from maleic anhydride, which is first transformed into methyl maleate ester and then hydrogenated. Other pathways come from succinic acid, butadiene, and allyl acetate.A marketed biological approach to BD makes use of a genetically altered organism.4-hydroxybutyrate is the intermediary in the biosynthesis.

Industrial use

Industrial applications for butane-1,4-diol include usage as a solvent for the production of certain polymers, elastic fibers, and polyurethanes. The synthesis of -butyrolactone (GBL) in organic chemistry uses 1,4-butanediol. Tetrahydrofuran, an essential solvent, is produced when it dehydrates in the presence of phosphoric acid at high temperatures.The diol undergoes dehydrogenation to produce butyrolactone at a temperature of around 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts.In order to make 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether, which is then employed as a reactive diluent for epoxy resins, it is necessary to synthesize it.

Drug use

As a recreational drug, butane-1,4-diol is also utilized and is also referred to as "One Comma Four," "Liquid Fantasy," "One Four Bee," or "One Four B-D-O."

According to a few Federal Courts, 1,4-butanediol, a metabolic byproduct of 1,4-butanol, displays effects comparable to those of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Other Federal courts, however, have decided that it is not.

Butane-1,4-diol, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, should only be used in modest doses. Symptoms of adverse reactions at greater dosages include nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, sleepiness, and, in extreme cases, death. When combined with alcohol, the anxiety-reducing benefits are lessened and the adverse effects are more pronounced.

Although butane-1,4-diol is not officially included on the federal schedule in the United States, it is a restricted drug in several states. According to the Federal Analog Act, which categorizes 1,4-butanediol as being substantially similar to GHB, people have been penalized for possessing it.A federal court in New York determined in 2002 that 1,4-butanediol could not be used as a legal substitute for GHB.

However, the Second Circuit later overruled that ruling.When the case was appealed to the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, it was undisputed that the jury's decision in the Federal District Court in Chicago that 1,4-butanediol was not a legal analog of GHB did not change the outcome of the case.

In December 2009, 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone, another GHB precursor, were added to the list of Class C prohibited substances in the UK. The substance is not specifically prohibited in Germany, although it may be considered criminal if taken as a drug.It is controlled as a Schedule VI precursor in Canada.

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