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Introduction to dipropylene glycol and propylene glycol

Views: 281     Author: Vickey     Publish Time: 2023-04-14      Origin: Site

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 Introduction to dipropylene glycol and propylene glycol

Dipropylene glycol is a mixture of three isomeric chemical compounds, 4-oxa-2,6-heptandiol, 2-(2-hydroxy-propoxy)-propan-1-ol, and 2-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethoxy)-propan-1-ol. It is a colorless, nearly odorless liquid with a high boiling point and low toxicity.

Synonyms for propylene glycol (ATSDR1997) include 1,2-propanediol; 1,2-dihydroxypropane; methyl glycol and trimethyl glycol.

Dipropylene glycol has a wide range of applications, including as a plasticizer, an industrial chemical reaction intermediate, a monomer or initiator of polymerization, and a solvent. It is the perfect addition for skin and hair care products as well as fragrances due to its low toxicity and solvent qualities. It is also a typical component of commercial fog fluid, which is used in fog machines in the entertainment sector.

In fragrance applications, dipropylene glycol is used in excess of 50%; in some other applications, dipropylene glycol is generally used in less than 10% (w/w). It can also take a place in unsaturated and saturated resins. The resins it produces have superior flexibility and cracking resistance to weathering. The long-term yellowing resistance of the product is also reliable. It can also be used as cellulose acetate; cellulose nitrate; varnish for insect gum; solvent for castor oil; and for making plasticizers, fumigants, synthetic detergents, etc.

Propylene glycol exposure in the general population is mostly a result of skin contact with cosmetics or topical treatments, as well as consumption of food and pharmaceuticals. In several oral, injectable, and topical formulations, propylene glycol is employed as a solvent in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

According to ATSDR (2008), it also has a wide range of other useful uses, such as plasticizers, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids, deicers, coolants, antifreeze, smoke screens, smoke simulators, and more.

Propylene glycol is a diluent found in many intravenous and oral drugs, including phenytoin,diazepam and lorazepam.

Propylene glycol is quickly absorbed from the digestive system. In humans, the maximum plasma concentrations happen one hour after intake. Alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver breaks down propylene glycol into lactic acid and subsequently pyruvic acid.

The citric acid cycle normally includes both of these metabolites, which are then further converted to carbon dioxide and water. The kidneys or the glucuronide conjugate are responsible for excreting around 45% of a dose of propylene glycol that has been absorbed.

Ethylene glycol is a potent cause of acute toxicity in humans. In contrast, propylene glycol is a “generally recognized as safe” additive for foods and medications.

No adverse health effects are likely to occur from normal use of these products.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (FDA 2017) has typically deemed propylene glycol safe for use in cosmetics, medicines, food, and tobacco products. Propylene glycol is not subject to any environmental or occupational regulations. For those aged 2–65, the FDA deems a daily dietary intake of 23 mg/kg of body weight to be safe (ATSDR 2008).

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